I’m addicted to usability and conversion tools. They’re the sexy part of my job, and it’s always fun to show clients how their visitors interact with their website. However, don’t let the fancy heatmaps and A/B or multivariate tests distract you from the reason the tools exist: to understand your visitors in order to deliver persuasive messages to them.
Because as Howie Jacobson, speaker and author of Adwords for Dummies, says, if you don’t have a deep understanding of your site’s visitors, it’s like writing a love letter addressed To Whom It May Concern.
So how do you get to know your visitor, and how exactly do you use that insight?
Create Customer Personas
You may have to start off with “educated guesses” to create 3 to 5 customer personas. These are detailed descriptions of fictitious people who represent your customers. Here’s my step-by-step process for creating customer personas quickly. (Every time I follow that process and show it to my clients, they say that sounds just like someone they recently met. That’s how I know I got it right.)
Here’s a sample persona I built for a client:
Refer to your personas when you’re deciding on the offer, call to action, and overall messaging of your ads and landing pages. Print this out and write to that persona.
Our landing page below tells Hailey instantly that it’s not too late for her to get her life back. It addresses her fears of being strapped to a bed and lets her know that detox can be a comfortable, safe experience.
This is how you write for real people, not for search engines or nebulous “visitors” to your site.
Observe Your Site’s Visitors
No joke, in my graduate marketing classes, I had an assignment to follow a shopper around the store, taking down notes of what he was doing. You may call that stalking, but traditional marketers call that observational research. Although it’s helpful for seeing how individual people shop, it’s extremely time-consuming – especially if you want to observe enough people to see patterns in behavior.
Luckily, we’re able to gather this type of data online. Can you say Google Analytics, anyone? Set up your conversion goals and funnels and see – in aggregate – where people are dropping out without converting.
Google Analytics tells you which pages are the culprits, but you need user feedback to understand why. Tools like Lucky Orange record videos of individual visitors’ mouse movements on your site. These videos, along with click maps, scroll maps, and polls, help you to understand how visitors navigate through your site. It’s observational research 2.0.
Know How People Buy
Online marketing pioneer Bryan Eisenberg teaches his Market Motive students about 4 buyer types that are segmented by how they make decisions: either quickly or deliberately, and either based on logic or emotion.
We have to appeal to the quick decision-makers first by making the content easy to skim with clear calls to action. But include elements on your pages that appeal to all four buyer types:
The other conversion master, Tim Ash, writes about the three brains we all have in his book, Landing Page Optimization:
- The reptilian brain: responsible for bodily maintenance and survival (circulation, breathing, etc, as well as fight-or-flight responses). It does not adapt, and it will repeat behaviors without learning from mistakes.
- The limbic system: in charge of emotion and memory, and decides whether we like something. It drives behavior related to avoiding pain and seeking pleasure. The limbic system overrides the reptilian brain and is usually the cause of the “real” reason we buy something – or avoid it.
- The neocortex: Supports language, speech, writing and logical thinking.
What do we do with this type of understanding?
We create our web pages based on how the brain works and how we buy. For example, the limbic system determines whether like something, so we most often buy based on emotion first, and then we back it up with rationalization from the neocortex.
This means that as marketers, we must create messages that appeal to people’s limbic system, or emotions, first, and then provide the “proof” so their neocortex can justify the purchase.
Appeal to People at All Stages of the Buying Cycle
Long before web, marketers have been using the acronym AIDA to describe consumers’ thought processes at different stages of the buying cycle. It stands for:
- Attention (or Awareness)
Bryan Eisenberg adds a final “S”, which stands for Satisfaction.
Here’s how this pertains to your online advertising strategy:
Attention or Awareness
Make sure your ads show when your prospects are searching by doing your due diligence with:
- Keyword research
- Bid management
- Segmentation based on appropriate geography, time of day, day of week, etc.
Write ads that grab their attention and get the click. The PPCassociates blog has a plethora of awesome content to read on this.
You can’t always expect people who are early in the buying cycle to complete your macro conversion. They might be just learning about how to solve their problem (or attain a certain type of pleasure, depending on what you provide).
Here’s how to help these people with their research, and stay top of mind with them:
- Write informative blog posts. Ideally, your goal is to write such helpful, awesome content that they subscribe to your blog in order to learn more from you.
- If you’ve done that well, social media allows for more interaction and relationship development. However, be careful with when and where to invite that connection. Don’t make the call to action of liking or following you so prominent on the page that it cannibalizes your primary call to action. This is a micro conversion. Don’t mistake it for a macro conversion.
- Offer whitepapers or other pieces of content, which they can download and refer back to. Naturally, your branding and contact information is all over it.
- Use remarketing to stay top of mind with your site’s visitors. But don’t do it the lazy way and simply give the same message to everyone who comes to your site, regardless of what they did there. Rather, serve different remarketing messages to people based on their actions. If they added something to their cart but didn’t buy, remarket them with discount offers. But don’t give those offers to people who did buy from you. Segment your remarketing lists.
Next, you need to win over people who have progressed through the buying cycle and are now comparing their options. You must know your competition in order to explain why someone should buy from you. Then:
- Offer comparison charts showing you against your competitors, which does the legwork for your customers:
- Figure out how you can sweeten the deal, compared to what your competition offers. Can you offer free shipping? Can you include bonus products? Can you provide faster delivery than your competitors? Can you offer a stronger guarantee?
When your target customer is ready to buy, make it easy to do so. Tools like usertesting.com help you see whether there’s anything confusing on your macro conversion pages, preventing people from taking that action.
Reduce buyer’s remorse with a strong post-conversion experience. Your thank-you page should reinforce the benefits they’re about to experience and instill confidence that they chose the right provider.
If you do lead gen, know that there’s nothing stopping that person from calling or filling out forms on your competitors’ sites after they’ve already reached out to you. To reduce that chance, remind your visitor how soon you’ll contact them back (that should be on the form page too, so repeat it on the thank-you page). Obviously, the sooner you can get back to them the better, but don’t promise a turnaround time that your sales team can’t deliver.
If possible, on the thank-you page, include pictures or a video of the people who will call them back. That way, they know who will be contacting them and when. Not only will this help humanize the online experience and reduce the chance that the prospect will reach out to your competitors, but your salespeople will thank you for warming up the leads for them.
When you show Bob’s picture or video and say that he’ll be in touch within 10 minutes, I promise you, that prospect will be a lot friendlier to Bob when he calls – which makes that lead worth more.
The thank-you page is also the perfect place to invite people to connect with you on social media. They’ve already shown interest in your company and now you can start developing a relationship with them.
Although technology has allowed us to gather more data faster and more accurately than ever before, online success still boils down to marketing fundamentals: there are people with a problem (or who are seeking pleasure), and you need to convey why they should do business with you.
Understanding who your customers are and how they buy, then engaging them at all stages of the buying cycle, is the magic formula that successful marketers have known long before Al Gore invented the interwebs. So use the awesome tools at your disposal, but base your findings on long-standing marketing principles.
- Theresa Baiocco is the co-founder of Click Advisors, which helps mid-sized businesses increase the ROI of their online advertising with Pay Per Click management and Conversion Rate Optimization. She has a Master’s degree in Marketing from the University of Colorado and is Master Certified in Conversion Rate Optimization through Market Motive.